Archival Photograph Project Description

During June of 1995 archaeological photographer Aaron Levin used a large format camera (4"x5" negatives) to create archival quality black-and-white photographs of the buildings in the forum. His work concentrates mainly on the east side of the forum in order to fully document the Macellum, the Imperial Cult Building, the Sanctuary of the Genius of Augustus, and the Eumachia Building. Other views are also present among the 205 photographs that follow. The photographs themselves are printed at 8"x10."

One of the current tasks of the Pompeii Forum Project is to present these photographs on the World Wide Web. This required that the photographs be arranged in a logical sequence, scanned, and saved in digital form. This has been accomplished. Captions are now being written and plans with camera icons are being prepared. These two methods of accessing the images are discussed below. This work is in progress and allows the user to consult a portion of the photographs.

For archival purposes scanned images are saved as large tif files (ca. 6.4 MB). Those presented here are much smaller gif images (99K to about 200K). Some of the border is left on the images in order to create the impression of an actual photograph on the screen.

There are two methods of gaining access to the the photographs. The first is by means of a caption list. The second method is by means of a series of plans containing camera icons and photograph numbers. The camera icons indicate the camera position for each photograph.

Captions for Levin Photographs-1995

Directions indicate the angle from which the photographs are taken and are recorded as if the main axis of the forum were exactly north-south. The following abbreviations are used:

n. north

n.e.  northeast

s.  south

s.e.  southeast

e.  east

s.w.  southwest

w.  west

n.w.  northwest
Note On Meter Sticks

One or two meter sticks appear in many photographs; see example no. 71. The shorter one, consisting of five alternating black-and-white 0.20 m. zones measures 1.00 m. The longer one is 2.00 m. in length: the two large black-and-white zones are 0.50 m. each; the five smaller zones measure 0.20 m. each.

Numbering System for "Rooms," Walls, and Doors

The accompanying plan provides the numbering system employed for all rooms and spaces in region VII, insula 9. The conventional system of numbers for region, insula, and door does not designate spaces within or between buildings. The system adopted here retains the region and insula number, but replaces the door number with a number for every space within the insula. Numbering begins at the northwestern corner of the insula and proceeds left to right within individual buildings, to the extent that their boundaries can be identified. Thus each space has a tripartite number whose first two elements are those of the conventional system. For example, the shrine within the Macellum is VII.9.37. As all of the spaces under discussion belong to region VII, insula 9, only the third element in the numbering system is employed here.

A shorthand system of designating walls uses the letter W and the numbered space on each side of the wall in question. The first number indicates the side of the wall being discussed, when that is an issue. For example, among the north shops of the Macellum, W7.8 refers to the wall between shop 7 and entrance 8 with particular attention to the side within shop 7. When seen from the opposite side, the same wall is W8.7. Similarly, D refers to a door; d would refer to a blocked door. Thus D112.115 is the door between 112 and 115 in the Sanctuary of the Genius of Augustus. Streets are designated as "via" followed by the numbers of the blocks that define the street. Thus W18.viaVII- 4/VII-9 indicates the wall between space 18 and the street that runs between VII.4 and VII.9.


General Views

  • Levin-1. Forum. General view from s.
  • Levin-15. Northeastern corner of the forum; from s.
  • Levin-2. Forum. General view from s.e.
  • Levin-3. Forum. General view of northern half of forum; from. s.
  • Levin-4. Forum. General view to north from with the Porticus of Popidius.
  • Levin- 18. Detail of pavement between the Temple of Jupiter and the Macellum.
  • Levin-5. Forum. General view from n.; from atop the podium of the Temple of Jupiter.
  • Levin- 6. Forum. General view from s.w.
  • Levin-20. Northeast Arch; from n; slightly diffrent from no. 19
  • Levin- 7. Forum. General view from n.w.; from atop the podium of the Temple of Jupiter
  • Levin- 8. Forum. General view from n.w.
  • Levin- 22. Via del foro; general view from s.
  • Levin- 9. Forum. General view of northern half of eastern side; from s.w.
  • Levin-10. E astern forum portico from Eumachia Building northward; from s.
  • Levin-24. Northwestern corner of forum; from s.e.
  • Levin-11. Eastern forum portico from Eumachia Building northward; from s.
  • Levin-25. Basilica, including part of forum portico; from e.
  • Levin-12. Eastern forum portico from Sanctuary of the Genius of Augustus northward; from s.; view includes northeast arch and Temple of Jupiter
  • Levin-13. Eastern forum portico from Imperial Cult Building northward, from s.; view includes entire northeastern corner of the forum.
  • Levin-27. Basilica, interior; from s.e.
  • Levin-14. Northeastern corner of forum; from s.s.w.
  • Levin-28. Basilica, interior; from s.w.


Eumachia Building: Facade

Numbered Plan of Eumachia Building Facade

  • Levin-29. Eumachia Building; (entire facade); from w.
  • Levin-33. Eumachia Building; (193-195); from w.
  • Levin-30. Eumachia Building; (193, 194); from s.w.
  • Levin-34. Eumachia Building; (195, 204); from w.
  • Levin-31. Eumachia Building; (193 detail); from s.w.
  • Levin-35. Eumachia Building; (196); from w.
  • Levin-32. E umachia Building; (193); from s. (i.e., from within 194)
  • Levin-36. Eumachia Building; (196-198); from w.


Eumachia Building: Exterior - South Side

Numbered Plan of Eumachia Building

The following details ( s. side) run west to east
  • Levin-37. Eumachia Building; (entire s. side); from s.w.
  • Levin-44. Eumachia Building; (s. side, detail 7); from s.
  • Levin-38. Eumachia Building; (s. side, detail 1); from s.
  • Levin-45. Eumachia Building; (s. side, detail 8); from s.
  • Levin-39. Eumachia Building; (s. side, detail 2); from s.
  • Levin-46. Eumachia Building; (s. side, detail 9 with view into 223, 222); from s.
  • Levin-40. Eumachia Building; (s. side, detail 3); from s.
  • Levin-47. Eumachia Building; (223); from s.
  • Levin-41. Eumachia Building; (s. side, detail 4); from s.
  • Levin-48. Eumachia Building; (223, w. wall); from e.
  • Levin-42. Eumachia Building; (s. side, detail 5); from s.
  • Levin-49. Eumachia Building; (dedicatory inscription); from s.
  • Levin-43. Eumachia Building; (s. side, detail 6); from s.
  • Levin-50. Eumachia Building; (entire s. side); from s.e.


Eumachia Building: Exterior - East Side

  • Levin-51. Eumachia Building; (almost entire e. side); from s.e.
  • Levin-55. Eumachia Building; (e. side, detail 4; detail of no. 54); from e.
  • Levin-52. Eumachia Building; (e. side, detail 1); from e.
  • Levin-56. Eumachia Building; (entire e. side); from n.e.
  • Levin-53. Eumachia Building; (e. side, detail 2); from e.
  • Levin-57. Eumachia Building; (n.e. corner and associated intersection); from e.
  • Levin-54. Eumachia Building; (e. side, detail 3); from s.s.e.


Eumachia Building: Exterior - North Side

  • Levin-58. Eumachia Building; (n.e. corner and north side); from n.e.
  • Levin-60. Eumachia Building; (191, west end); from e.
  • Levin-59. Eumachia Building; (n. side); from n.e.


Eumachia Building: Interior - West End (including n. and s. doors to the crypta)

Numbered Plan of Eumachia Building

  • Levin-61. Eumachia Building; (general view of west end); from e.
  • Levin-66. Eumachia Building; (area n. of 204); from e.
  • Levin-62. Eumachia Building; (D[door]212.221); from n.n.e.
  • Levin-67. Eumachia Building; (206); from e.
  • Levin-63. Eumachia Building; (D[door]212.221); from n.
  • Levin-68. Eumachia Building; (D209.208); from s.
  • Levin-64. Eumachia Building; (207); from e.

 


Eumachia Building: Interior - North Portico

Numbered Plan of Eumachia Building

  • Levin-69. Eumachia Building; (209, part of 213); from w.
  • Levin-71. Eumachia Building; (210); from s.w.
  • Levin-70. Eumachia Building; (210); from w.


Eumachia Building: Interior - East End

Numbered Plan of Eumachia Building

  • Levin-72. Eumachia Building; (east end, distant view); from w.
  • Levin-75. Eumachia Building; (215); from w.
  • Levin-73. Eumachia Building; (east end, closer view); from w.
  • Levin-76. Eumachia Building; (east end, including 217); from s.w.
  • Levin-74. Eumachia Building; (east end: 214, 215); from w.
  • Levin-77. Eumachia Building; 213, 209; from s.e.


Eumachia Building: Interior - South Portico

Numbered Plan of Eumachia Building

  • Levin-78. Eumachia Building; 213, 218; fr. n.; entablature blocks in 218.
  • Levin-80. Eumachia Building; 218; detail of area seen in no. 79; fr. n.
  • Levin-79. Eumachia Building; 218; fr. n.w. remains of tufa stylobate in foreground; two architrave blocks at 1. in 218; wall w218. 221 preserves marble base moulding and marble sills for window that connected 218 and 221.


Eumachia Building: Interior - North Crypta

Numbered Plan of Eumachia Building

  • Levin-82. Eumachia Building; 208; plaster on w208.209; fr. n.
  • Levin-83. Eumachia Building; 208, D208.209; 213 and 218 in background; fr. nw.
  • Levin-90. 208, northeast corner; fr. sw.
  • Levin-84. Eumachia Building; D208.209; 212 and D212.221 in background.
  • Levin-91. 208, east end at junction with 216; fr. ne.
  • Levin-85. Eumachia Building; 208, west end; D20800.209 at l.; fr. e.
  • Levin-92. 216, 208; fr. ne. This, photo 91, and others in this group show the good preservation of features in this corner, including the small tufa block construction of the corner and of the window frames; marble window sills; marble pilaster base; and wall plaster.
  • Levin-86. Eumachia Building; 208, west end; D20800.209 at l.; fr. ese.
  • Levin-93. Northwest corner of 216, close-up (or, exterior n.e. corner of 211) with full length of 208 at r.; fr. e. The photograph reveals that this corner is no longer plumb and that a long vertical crack runs through the corner. Another earth tremor may cause this corner to fail.
  • Levin-87. 208, west end; D20800.209 at l.; fr. ene.


Eumachia Building: Interior - East Crypta

Numbered Plan of Eumachia Building

  • Levin-92. 216, 208; fr. ne. This, photo 91, and others in this group show the good preservation of features in this corner, including the small tufa block construction of the corner and of the window frames; marble window sills; marble pilaster base; and wall plaster.
  • Levin-95. 217; fr. nw. Plaster cast of statue of Eumachia with the inscription EVMACHIAE L. F./SACERD PVBL/FVLLONES.
  • Levin-93. Northwest corner of 216, close-up (or, exterior n.e. corner of 211) with full length of 208 at r.; fr. e. The photograph reveals that this corner is no longer plumb and that a long vertical crack runs through the corner. Another earth tremor may cause this corner to fail.
  • Levin-96. 216, south end at juncture with 221; fr. se.
  • Levin-94. 216, central part (w. side), showing the rear of apse 215 and one of the windows that communicates with 211; fr. ne.
  • Levin-97. 221 (full length), 216 (south end); fr. se. Also the full length of w221.218, and in the background the entire western end of the building.


Eumachia Building: Interior - South Crypta

Numbered Plan of Eumachia Building

  • Levin-97. 221 (full length), 216 (south end); fr. se. Also the full length of w221.218, and in the background the entire western end of the building.
  • Levin-105. D121.218. Close-up of repaired w. jamb; fr. s.e.
  • Levin-102. A section of w221.218; fr. s. This shows post-62 repair work in architectual rubble (including a Doric column fragement) above the original opus incertum masonry.
  • Levin-106. View from s. crypta (121), along 212, to D209.208; fr. s. This photograph shows that the e. jamb of D121.218 is also a repair.
  • Levin-107. Same as photograph 106, but from a slightly different angle.
  • Levin-104. 221, w. end. Overview, incl. D.121.218; fr. e. Much of what appears in this photograph is post-62 repair, incl. the wall plaster and marble pilaster socle. (The pile of rocks in the corner is modern, ca. 1995).


Eumachia Building: Interior - Architectural Fragments

Numbered Plan of Eumachia Building

  • Levin-108. Two marble architrave blocks in s. crypta (121); fr. w.
  • Levin-109. Fragment of Corinthian raking cornice in s. crypta (121); fr. n.


Sanctuary of the Genius of Augustus
Sanctuary/Genius of Augustus: Exterior - West Facade

  • Levin-110. Western precinct wall (n. section); fr. w. The roughly quoined seam between opus incertum/quasi reticulatum and brickwork marks the juncture between original construction and post-62 brickwork.
  • Levin-113. Same as photograph 112, but closer, also showing altar and temple within the sanctuary.
  • Levin-111. Detail of corner where w. precinct wall (n. section) meets w107.91; fr. sw. The detail shows wall construction, a small vestige of painted plaster in the corner (belonging to a first phase of decoration), and large areas of a mortar setting bed for marble revetment, or veneer, that belongs to a second phase of decoration.
  • Levin-114. Western precinct wall (s. section); fr. w.
  • Levin-112. Western precinct wall (central section); fr. w. The left (n.) door jamb, relieving arch, and related non-brick masonry belongs to the Bourbon period. At the right, marble shims are still preserved in the setting bed and the impression of a now-lost revetment slab can be seen.


Sanctuary/Genius of Augustus: Interior

  • Levin-115. Overview of altar and temple with e. precinct wall in background; fr. w.
  • Levin-124. Overview of the sanctuary interior showing the articulated n. precinct wall, the altar, and the temple podium; fr. s. The motif of recessed bays whose pediments alternate between triangular and segmental shapes also appears on the exterior of the s. and e. walls of the Eumachia Building; see photographs 37-57.
  • Levin-116. Interior of the temple. Detail (see photograph 115), including the remains of the base for the cult statue, mortar setting bed for the marble revetment, and to the right a tunneling hole (blocked in the modern period); fr. w.
  • Levin-125. North precinct wall, w. end; fr. s. This and the following two photographs reveal the wall construction: small Nocera tufa block for the compound piers that quoins in a 3x3 pattern to the opus incertum bay centers. This is the same construction used in the exterior s. and e. walls of the Eumachia Building.
  • Levin-117. Temple. Exterior, s. side; fr. s.w. In the foreground is a stairway (ascending fr. the e.) to the temple podium. In the upper part of the temple’s wall the brickwork has been cut away to make three rough panels; the uncut original brickwork serves as pilaster strips between the panels. Traces of tangs, wedges, and setting bed indicate that like the interior, the exterior of the temple was revetted in marble.
  • Levin-118. Overview of the sanctuary interior; fr. e. Taken from the temple platform.
  • Levin-119. Same as 118. Slightly different angle.
  • Levin-128. South precinct wall (109/112.191); fr. n.w. The upper part is modern (making use of ancient material) below which is ancient architectural rubble, small yellow tufa block, and at the corners brickwork construction.


Sanctuary/Genius of Augustus: Interior - Altar

  • Levin-120. East side, fr. e. Corona civica (civic crown=oak wreath) placed over a shield (the Clipeis Virtutis awarded to Augustus), and flanked by laurel trees.
  • Levin-122. North side, fr. n. Garland hung from bucrania (bulls skulls); below the patera, simpulum, and urceus (libation saucer, ladle, and pitcher) used at a Roman sacrifice.
  • Levin-121. West side, fr. w. Sacrifice taking place at a tripod altar in front of a tetrastyle temple hung with bunting.
  • Levin-123. South side, fr. s. Garland hung from bucrania (bulls skulls); below the mantele, acerra, and lituus (towel, incense box, and staff.


Imperial Cult Building

  • Levin-129. Overview from within the forum, including parts of the adjacent Macellum (left) and Sanctuary of the Genius of Augustus (right); fr. w. In the foreground are a few of the forum’s remaining paving slabs in Caserta limestone.
  • Levin-139. Interior, north side; detail of westernmost sculpture niche (see photograph 138); fr. s.
  • Levin-130. Overview from within the forum; fr. w. The four large blocks in the foreground are the footings for the central four of the eight columns that served as both building facade and forum colonnade. Photographs along the axis of the building dramatically foreshorten the building’s depth and considerably flatten the eastern apse.
  • Levin-140. Interior, north side; westernmost sculpture niche and most of the northern exedra (92); fr. s.
  • Levin-131. Junction between the Macellum (left) and the Imperial Cult Building; fr. w. The rough foundation in the foreground marks the location of the now-missing footing for the northernmost column of the building’s facad.
  • Levin-141. Interior, northeast corner; fr. s.w.
  • Levin-132. Interior, south side; fr. n.w. and just outside the building. Four of the column footings are visible.
  • Levin-142. Interior, northeast corner; fr. s.
  • Levin-133. Interior, south side; fr. n.w. and just inside the building. The southern exedra (95) with it large statue base is clearer in this photograph than in the previous. See photographs 137 and 137 for straight-on views of the south side.
  • Levin-143. Interior; apse at eastern end with flanking sculpture niches; fr. w.
  • Levin-134. Overview from within the forum; fr. s.w.
  • Levin-144. Interior, southern exedra (95); fr. n.e.
  • Levin-135. Junction between the Imperial Cult Building and the Sanctuary of the Genius of Augustus; fr. w.
  • Levin-145. Exterior; n.w. corner of space 97 (northern exterior of apse); fr. n.e.
  • Levin-136. Interior, south side; fr. n.n.w.
  • Levin-146. Exterior, overview of eastern apse; fr. n.e.
  • Levin-147. Exterior; n.w. corner of space 102 (southern exterior of apse); fr. s.e.


Macellum
Macellum: Facade

  • Levin-152. Shop 19; fr. s.w. This shop communicates with space 2 by means of a window in its northeast corner (the area of finished brickwork in the central portion of the photograph). The area below the window is damaged.
  • Levin-153. Main entrance to the Macellum; fr. w.
  • Levin-154. Space 26 and the platform (27) at the southern end of the Macellum facade; fr. n.w.
  • Levin-151. Shop 1; fr. w.s.w. This shop was once one with space 2, but w1.2 divides the space into two. W1.2 is clearly an addition that abuts the n. and s. walls of the shop.


Macellum: Nothern Shops

  • Levin-155. Northern entrance (8) to the Macellum; fr. n.
  • Levin-158. Shops 17 (left) and 16 (right); fr. n.e.
  • Levin-156. Shops 14 (left) and 13 (right); fr. n.w.


Macellum: Exterior - South Side

  • Levin-160. Overview of the central portion of the south wall; fr. s.s.e. On the left is the northeast corner of the Imperial Cult Building; on the right the wall that separates 97 from the street to the south of the Macellum (vicolo del Balcone Pensile). This wall along with the bulk of the Imperial Cult Building suppress this street that once ran into the forum. Excavations by Salvatore Nappo in 1996 revealed a vestige of the street in the area of the forum’s east portico.
  • Levin-163. Southeast corner of the Macellum; fr. s.e.
  • Levin-161. South entrance (51) to the Macellum; fr. s.e.
  • Levin-186. Vicolo del Balcone Pensile, from the southeast corner of the Macellum to the wall that terminates the street; fr. e. Note that a small door in this wall would allow foot passage into 97 and adjacent spaces.
  • Levin-162. South wall (eastern section from entrance 51 to the building’s corner); fr. s.w. A large section of out-of-plane failure, and subsequent repair, is evident at the top of the wall.


Macellum: Interior - Overviews

  • Levin-167. Southern side of the building showing most of the south shops; fr. n.w.
  • Levin-168. Western end of the building from the center of 34; fr. e.
  • Levin-166. Southeast quadrant of building; fr. n.w.


Macellum: Interior - North Wall

  • Levin-169. North wall (western section); fr. s.e. A large section of out-of-plane failure, and subsequent repair, is evident in this section of wall. The eastern end of the wall (= western jamb of entrance 8) displays in interesting triple quoining scheme in which brick quoins to small block, which, in turn, quoins to lava incertum. See photos 171 and 172; the same scheme was used on the eastern jamb of the entrance.
  • Levin-171. North wall (central section, including entrance 8); fr. s.
  • Levin-170. North wall. Detail of the section l shown in photograph 169; fr. s.


Macellum: Exterior - East Side


Captions for the following images must still be supplied. This project will probably not be completed until late 1999.

  • Levin-98. 211, northeast corner; fr. sw. This corner appears to preserve in situ part of the original wall and window construction, a marble sill, and extensive patches of plaster—now devoid of color. In the fal of 1993 when the grass and sod were being dug up to prepare for the placement of the gravel seen in these photographs pieces of finely painted plaster (red, yellow, white, green) were turned up by the workers just beyond this space at the junction of 208/216 (Observed by John Dobbins, October 1993).
  • Levin-99. 211, southwestern section; fr. ne. Window F211.210 at right.
  • Levin-100. 220, northern half; fr. s. Window F220.214 at l.
  • Levin-101. 220, western wall with windows F220.219 and F220.214; fr. e.